Skip to content

Vanadium[ [V] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses.


Element 23 of Periodic table is Vanadium with atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9415. Vanadium, symbol V, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Vanadium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 5 (vanadium family). Know everything about Vanadium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

History of Vanadium

The element Vanadium was discovered by M. del Río in year 1801 in Mexico and Sweden. Vanadium was first isolated by N.G.Sefström in 1830. Vanadium derived its name from Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja.

Río found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotilsdisputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.

How to Locate Vanadium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 23 to find Vanadium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Vanadium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Vanadium Facts

Atomic Symbol
Atomic Number
Atomic Weight
Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table
Group Name
Vanadium family
Block in Periodic Table
d -block
Period in Periodic Table
Electronic Configuration
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Melting Point
2183 K
Boiling Point
3680 K
Electronic Shell Structure
2, 8, 11, 2
CAS Number

Vanadium Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties

Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 11, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2.

Element Properties

Atomic Number
Number of Protons
Mass Number
Number of Neutrons
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
2, 8, 11, 2
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Valence Electrons
3d3 4s2
Oxidation State
-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)

Atomic Structure of Vanadium

Atomic Radius
171 pm (1.71 Å)
Atomic Radius Empirical
135 pm (1.35 Å)
Atomic Volume
8.3374 cm3/mol
Covalent Radius
125 pm (1.25 Å)
Van der Waals Radius
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption

Crystal Structure of Vanadium

The solid state structure of Vanadium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a[303 pm]b[303pm] and c[303pm]) and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha[π/2], beta[π/2] and gamma[π/2])

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name

Space Group Number

Crystal Structure

Number of atoms per unit cell

Im_ 3m


Body Centered Cubic


Ground State Electronic Configuration of Vanadium- neutral Vanadium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Vanadium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Vanadium atom is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The portion of Vanadium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d3 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Vanadium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Vanadium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund’s rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number
RTECS Number
EU Number
DOT Hazard Class
DOT Numbers
NFPA Fire Rating
NFPA Hazards
Autoignition Point
NFPA Health Rating
NFPA Reactivity Rating

Vanadium Chemical Properties : Vanadium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

0 kJ/mol

Vanadium Physical & Elastic Properties

6.11 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.5 g/cm3)
Molar Volume
8.3374 cm3/mol
Young Modulus
Shear Modulus
47 GPa
Bulk Modulus
160 GPa
Poisson Ratio

Vanadium Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity
5000000 S/m
2e-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point

Vanadium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type
Curie Point
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility
6.28e-8 m3/kg
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility
3.199e-9 m3/mol
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility

Vanadium Thermal Properties

Melting Point
2183 K (1909.85°C, 3469.7299999999996 °F)
Boiling Point
3680 K (3406.85°C, 6164.33 °F)
Critical Temperature
Superconducting Point

Use of Vanadium

Vanadium-steel alloys are used for armour plate, axles, tools, piston rods and crankshafts. Less than 1% of vanadium, and as little chromium, makes steel shock resistant and vibration resistant. Vanadium alloys are used in nuclear reactors because of vanadium’s low neutron-absorbing properties.

106. Seaborgium [Sg]