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Titanium[Ti] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses.

Titanium

Element 22 of Periodic table is Titanium with atomic number 22, atomic weight 47.867. Titanium, symbol Ti, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Titanium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 4 (titanium family). Know everything about Titanium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

History of Titanium

The element Titanium was discovered by W. Gregor in year 1791 in United Kingdom. Titanium was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1825. Titanium derived its name from Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology.

Gregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite; Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element inrutilein 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 byMatthew A. Hunter.

How to Locate Titanium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 22 to find Titanium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Titanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Titanium Facts

Name
Titanium
Atomic Symbol
Ti
Atomic Number
22
Phase
Solid
Atomic Weight
47.867
Colour
silver
Classification
Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table
4
Group Name
Titanium family
Block in Periodic Table
d -block
Period in Periodic Table
4
Electronic Configuration
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Melting Point
1941 K
Boiling Point
3560 K
Electronic Shell Structure
2, 8, 10, 2
CAS Number
CAS7440-32-6

Titanium Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties

Titanium atomic radius is 176 pm, while it’s covalent radius is 136 pm. Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Element Properties

Atomic Number
22
Number of Protons
22
Mass Number
48
Number of Neutrons
26
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
2, 8, 10, 2
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Valence Electrons
3d2 4s2
Oxidation State
-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
3F2

Atomic Structure of Titanium

Atomic Radius
176 pm (1.76 Å)
Atomic Radius Empirical
140 pm (1.4 Å)
Atomic Volume
10.621 cm3/mol
Covalent Radius
136 pm (1.36 Å)
Van der Waals Radius
Neutron Cross Section
6.1
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0044

Crystal Structure of Titanium

The solid state structure of Scandium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a[295.08 pm]b[295.08 pm] and c[468.55 pm]and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name

Space Group Number

Crystal Structure
P63/mmc

194

Simple Hexagonal

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Scandium- neutral Scandium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Titanium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Titanium atom is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The portion of Titanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d2 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Titanium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Titanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund’s rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number
RTECS Number
EU Number
DOT Hazard Class
4.2
DOT Numbers
2546
NFPA Fire Rating
1
NFPA Hazards
Autoignition Point
250 °C
NFPA Health Rating
1
NFPA Reactivity Rating
2
Flashpoint

Titanium Chemical Properties : Titanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity.

ElectronAffinity
7.6 kJ/mol
Valence
4
Electronegativity
1.54

Titanium Physical & Elastic Properties

Density
4.507 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $4.11 g/cm3)
Molar Volume
10.621 g/cm3
Young Modulus
116
Shear Modulus
44 GPa
Bulk Modulus
110 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.32

Titanium Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity
2500000 S/m
Resistivity
4e-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.4

Titanium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type
Paramagnetic
Curie Point
N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility
4.01e-8 m3/kg
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility
1.919e-9 m3/mol
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility
0.0001807

Titanium Thermal Properties

Melting Point
1941 K (1667.85°C, 3034.13 °F)
Boiling Point
3560 K (3286.85°C, 5948.33 °F)
Critical Temperature
Superconducting Point
0.04

Use of Titanium

Titanium has huse application in surgical such as in joint replacements and tooth implants. The largest use of titanium is in the form of titanium(IV) oxide. It is extensively used as a pigment in house paint, artists’ paint, plastics, enamels and paper.

106. Seaborgium [Sg]