Silicon

Silicon[Si] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses of Silicon.

silicon elements

Silicon

Silicon is the 14th Element of Periodic table with atomic number 14, atomic weight 28.0855. Silicon, symbol Si, has a Tetrahedral Packing structure and Gray color. Silicon is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Silicon Facts, Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

silicon elements

History of Silicon

The element Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year 1824 in Sweden . Silicon derived its name from the Latin silex, ‘flint’ (originally silicium)

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon’s character dates to its discovery

How to Locate Silicon on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 14 to find Silicon on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silicon on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Silicon Facts

Name
Silicon
Atomic Symbol
Si
Atomic Number
14
Phase
Solid
Atomic Weight
28.0855
Colour
Gray
Classification
metalloid
Group in Periodic Table
14
Group Name
carbon family
Block in Periodic Table
p-block
Period in Periodic Table
3
Electronic Configuration
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Melting Point
1414 °C
Boiling Point
2.9×103 °C
Electronic Shell Structure
[2, 8, 4]
CAS Number
CAS7440-21-3

Silicon Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties

Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

silicon atomic structure
silicon isotopes

Element Properties

Atomic Number
14
Number of Protons
14
Mass Number
28
Number of Neutrons
14
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
[2, 8, 4]
Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Valence Electrons
3s2 3p2
Oxidation State
-4;-3;-2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
2P0

Atomic Structure of Silicon

Atomic Radius
111 pm (1.11 Å)
Atomic Volume
12.0538626609 cm33
Covalent Radius
111 pm (1.11 Å)
Van der Waals Radius
210 pm
Neutron Cross Section
171 σa/barns

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silicon - neutral Silicon atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silicon atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The portion of Silicon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silicon

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

Atomic Spectrum of Silicon

Atomic Spectrum of Silicon

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number
CAS7440-21-3
RTECS Number
RTECSVW0400000
EU Number
N/A
DOT Hazard Class
4.1
DOT Numbers
1346
NFPA Fire Rating
0
NFPA Hazards
N/A
Autoignition Point
150 °C
NFPA Health Rating
1
NFPA Reactivity Rating
0
Flashpoint
N/A

Silicon Chemical Properties : Silicon Ionization Energies and electron affinity

ElectronAffinity
133.6 kJ/mol
Valence
4
Electronegativity
1.9

Use of Silicon

Silicon is one of the most useful element in the World. Mostly used to make alloys including aluminium-silicon and ferro-silicon (iron-silicon). These are used to make dynamo and transformer plates, engine blocks, cylinder heads and machine tools and to de-oxidise steel. Silicon is also used to make silicones.

106. Seaborgium [Sg]