Silicon[Si] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses of Silicon.
Silicon is the 14th Element of Periodic table with atomic number 14, atomic weight 28.0855. Silicon, symbol Si, has a Tetrahedral Packing structure and Gray color. Silicon is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Silicon Facts, Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
History of Silicon
The element Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year 1824 in Sweden . Silicon derived its name from the Latin silex, ‘flint’ (originally silicium)
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon’s character dates to its discovery
How to Locate Silicon on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 14 to find Silicon on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silicon on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
Silicon Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties
Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.
Atomic Structure of Silicon
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silicon - neutral Silicon atom
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silicon atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The portion of Silicon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silicon
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Atomic Spectrum of Silicon
Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Silicon Chemical Properties : Silicon Ionization Energies and electron affinity
Use of Silicon
Silicon is one of the most useful element in the World. Mostly used to make alloys including aluminium-silicon and ferro-silicon (iron-silicon). These are used to make dynamo and transformer plates, engine blocks, cylinder heads and machine tools and to de-oxidise steel. Silicon is also used to make silicones.