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Manganese [Mn] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses.

Manganese

Manganese is 25th element of Periodic table with atomic number 25, atomic weight 54.938049. Manganese, symbol Mn, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Manganese is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 7 (manganese family). Know everything about Manganese Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

History of Manganese

The element Manganese was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1774 in Sweden. Manganese was first isolated by G. Gahn in 1774. Manganese derived its name from magnesia negra.

Distinguished pyrolusiteas the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaimal so discovered the new metal in 1770, as did Scheele in 1774. It was isolated by reduction ofmanganese dioxidewith carbon.

How to Locate Manganese on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 25 to find Manganese on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Manganese on periodic table look for cross section of group 7 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Manganese Facts

Name
Manganese
Atomic Symbol
Mn
Atomic Number
25
Phase
Solid
Atomic Weight
54.938049
Colour
Silver
Classification
Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table
7
Group Name
Manganese family
Block in Periodic Table
d-block
Period in Periodic Table
4
Electronic Configuration
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Melting Point
1519 K
Boiling Point
2334 K
Electronic Shell Structure
2, 8, 13, 2
CAS Number
CAS7439-96-5

Manganese Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties

Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 13, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6S5/2.

Element Properties

Atomic Number
25
Number of Protons
25
Mass Number
55
Number of Neutrons
30
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
2, 8, 13, 2
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Valence Electrons
3d5 4s2
Oxidation State
-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
6S5/2

Atomic Structure of Manganese

Atomic Radius
161 pm (1.61 Å)
Atomic Radius Empirical
140 pm (1.4 Å)
Atomic Volume
7.3545 cm3/mol
Covalent Radius
139 pm (1.39 Å)
Van der Waals Radius
Neutron Cross Section
13.3
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0083

Crystal Structure of Manganese

The solid state structure of Argon is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a[525.6 pm]b[891.25 pm] and c[891.25 pm]) and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha[π/2], beta[π/2] and gamma[π/2])

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name

Space Group Number

Crystal Structure

Number of atoms per unit cell

I_ 43m

217

Body Centered Cubic

2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Manganese- neutral Manganese atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Manganese

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Manganese atom is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. The portion of Manganese configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d5 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Manganese

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Manganese atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund’s rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

EU Number
DOT Hazard Class
4.1
DOT Numbers
3089
NFPA Fire Rating
NFPA Hazards
Autoignition Point
NFPA Health Rating
NFPA Reactivity Rating
Flashpoint

Manganese Chemical Properties : Argon Ionization Energies and electron affinity

ElectronAffinity
0 kJ/mol
Valence
4
Electronegativity
1.55

Manganese Physical & Elastic Properties

Density
7.47 g/cm (when liquid at m.p density is $5.95 g/cm3)
Molar Volume
7.3545 g/cm3
Young Modulus
198
Shear Modulus
N/A
Bulk Modulus
120 GPa
Poisson Ratio
N/A

Manganese Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity
620000 S/m
Resistivity
0.0000016 m Ω
Superconducting Point

Manganese Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type
Paramagnetic
Curie Point
N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility
1.21e-7 m3/kg
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility
6.6475e-9 m3/mol
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility
0.00090387

Manganese Thermal Properties

Melting Point
1519 K (1245.85°C, 2274.5299999999997 °F)
Boiling Point
2334 K (2060.85°C, 3741.5299999999997 °F)
Critical Temperature
Superconducting Point
N/A

Use of Manganese

Magnesium is used in various products like cars, luggage, laptops, cameras and power tools. It is also added to molten iron and steel to remove sulfur. As magnesium ignites easily in air and burns with a bright light, it’s used in flares, fireworks and sparklers.

106. Seaborgium [Sg]