Magnesium

Magnesium [Mg] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses.

Magnesium Symbol

Magnesium

Magnesium is the 12th Element of Periodic table with atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.305. , symbol Mg, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Magnesium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Magnesium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Magnesium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

magnesium elements

History of Magnesium

The element Magnesium was discovered by Joseph Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom . Magnesium derived its name from Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table:they each have the same electron configuration in their outer electron shell producing a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.

How to Locate Magnesium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 12 to find Magnesium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Magnesium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Magnesium Facts

Name
Magnesium
Atomic Symbol
Mg
Atomic Number
12
Phase
Solid
Atomic Weight
24.305
Colour
Silver
Classification
alkaline earth metal
Group in Periodic Table
2
Group Name
beryllium family
Block in Periodic Table
s-block
Period in Periodic Table
3
Electronic Configuration
[Ne] 3s2
Melting Point
650 °C
Boiling Point
1090 °C
Electronic Shell Structure
[2, 8, 2]
CAS Number
CAS7439-95-4

Magnesium Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties

Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Magnesium atomic structure
Magnesium Isotopes

Element Properties

Atomic Number
12
Number of Protons
12
Mass Number
24
Number of Neutrons
12
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
[2, 8, 2]
Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2
Valence Electrons
3s2
Oxidation State
1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)

1S0

Atomic Structure of Magnesium

Atomic Radius
145 pm (1.45 Å)
Atomic Volume
13.9844649022cm3
Covalent Radius
130 pm (1.3 Å)
Van der Waals Radius
173 pm
Neutron Cross Section
0.063 σa/barns

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Magnesium - neutral Magnesium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Magnesium atom is [Ne] 3s2. The portion of Magnesium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Magnesium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Magnesium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium

Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number
CAS7439-95-4
RTECS Number
N/A
EU Number
EU231-954-8
DOT Hazard Class
4.1
DOT Numbers
2950
NFPA Fire Rating
3
NFPA Hazards
N/A
Autoignition Point
472 °C
NFPA Health Rating
0
NFPA Reactivity Rating
1
Flashpoint
500 °C

Magnesium Chemical Properties : Magnesium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

ElectronAffinity
0 kJ/mol
Valence
2
Electronegativity
1.31

Use of Magnesium

Magnesium is used as a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis.

106. Seaborgium [Sg]