Lithium [Li] – Element Details, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Lithium is Element 3 of Periodic table with atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.941, symbol Li, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Lithium is a alkali metal element. Trivial name of Lithium is alkali metals. Know about Lithium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
The element Lithium was discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in year 1817 in Sweden . Lithium derived its name the Greek word lithos, meaning ‘stone’
Lithium (from Greek:λίθος lithos, “stone”) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.
How to Locate Lithium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 3 to find Lithium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lithium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 2 in the modern periodic table
Lithium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Lithium atoms have 3 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.
Atomic Structure of Lithium
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lithium – Neutral Lithium Atom
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lithium atom is [He] 2s1. The portion of Lithium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lithium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lithium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration