Lithium

Lithium [Li] – Element Details, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

Lithium [Li]

Lithium

Lithium is Element 3 of Periodic table with atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.941, symbol Li, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Lithium is a alkali metal element. Trivial name of Lithium is alkali metals. Know about Lithium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

Lithium Stone

Lithium History

The element Lithium was discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in year 1817 in Sweden . Lithium derived its name the Greek word lithos, meaning ‘stone’

Lithium (from Greek:λίθος lithos, “stone”) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.

How to Locate Lithium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 3 to find Lithium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lithium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 2 in the modern periodic table

Lithium Facts

Name
Lithium
Atomic Symbol
Li
Atomic Number
3
Atomic Weight
6.941
Phase
Solid
Colour
Silver
Classification
Alkali Metal
Group in Periodic Table
1
Group Name
lithium family
Period in Periodic Table
2
Block in Periodic Table
s-block
Electronic Configuration
2s1
Melting Point
180.54 °C
Boiling Point
1342 °C
Electronic Shell Structure
[2, 1]
CAS Number
CAS7439-93-2

Lithium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lithium atoms have 3 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Lithium Atomic
Lithium Isotopes

Properties

Atomic Structure of Lithium

Atomic Number
3
Atomic Radius
167 pm (1.67 Å)
Number of Electrons (with no charge)
3
Atomic Volume
12.9738317757 cm3
Number of Protons
3
Covalent Radius
134 pm (1.34 Å)
Mass Number
7
Van der Waals Radius
182 pm
Number of Neutrons
4
Neutron Cross Section
0.045 σa/barns
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
[2, 1]
Electron Configuration
[He] 2s1
Valence Electrons
2s1
Oxidation State
1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lithium – Neutral Lithium Atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lithium atom is [He] 2s1. The portion of Lithium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lithium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lithium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s1

Atomic Spectrum of Lithium

Atomic Spectrum of Lithium
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