- History of Chromium
- How to Locate Chromium on Periodic Table
- Chromium Facts
- Chromium Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties
- Element Properties
- Atomic Structure of Chromium
- Crystal Structure of Chromium
- Ground State Electronic Configuration of Chromium- neutral Argon Chromium
- Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
- Chromium Chemical Properties : Argon Ionization Energies and electron affinity
- Chromium Physical & Elastic Properties
- Chromium Electrical Properties
- Chromium Magnetic Properties
- Chromium Thermal Properties
- Use of Chromium
Chromium [Cr] – Element Details, History, Atomic Structure, Facts, Properties, Electronic Configuration, Atomic Spectrum, Uses.
Element 24 of Periodic table is Chromium with atomic number 24, atomic weight 51.9961. Chromium, symbol Cr, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Chromium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 6 (chromium family). Know everything about Chromium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
History of Chromium
The element Chromium was discovered by N. Vauquelin in year 1797 in France. Chromium was first isolated by N. Vauquelin in 1798. Chromium derived its name from the Greek word chroma, meaning ‘color’.
Vauquelin discovered the trioxide incrocoiteore, and later isolated the metal by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven.
How to Locate Chromium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 24 to find Chromium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Chromium on periodic table look for cross section of group 6 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
Chromium Atomic Structure and Orbital Properties
Chromium atoms have 24 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 13, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 7S3.
Atomic Structure of Chromium
Crystal Structure of Chromium
The solid state structure of Argon is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a[291 pm], b[291 pm] and c[291 pm]) and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha[π/2], beta[π/2] and gamma[π/2])
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
Space Group Name
Space Group Number
Number of atoms per unit cell
Body Centered Cubic
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Chromium- neutral Argon Chromium
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Chromium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Chromium atom is [Ar] 3d5 4s1. The portion of Chromium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d5 4s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Chromium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Chromium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
- As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
- The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
- Hund’s rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Chromium Chemical Properties : Argon Ionization Energies and electron affinity
Chromium Physical & Elastic Properties
Chromium Electrical Properties
Chromium Magnetic Properties
Chromium Thermal Properties
Use of Chromium
Chromium is used to produce seversl alloys. It is used to harden steel and manufacture stainless steel. Chromium plating can be used to give a polished mirror finish to steel. Chromium-plated car and lorry parts, such as bumpers, were once very common.